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Water Harvesting

It means capturing rain where it falls or capturing the run off in your own village or town. And taking measures to keep that water clean by not allowing polluting activities to take place in the catchments. Therefore, water harvesting can be undertaken through a variety of ways likely Capturing runoff from rooftops, Capturing runoff from local catchments, Capturing seasonal floodwaters from local streams, Conserving water through watershed management. These techniques can serve the following the following purposes: Provide drinking water, Provide irrigation water, Increase groundwater recharge, Reduce storm water discharges, urban floods and overloading of sewage treatment plants, Reduce seawater ingress in coastal areas. In general, water harvesting is the activity of direct collection of rainwater. The rainwater collected can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into the groundwater. Rain is the first form of water that we know in the hydrological cycle, hence is a primary source of water for us. Rivers, lakes and groundwater are all secondary sources of water. In present times, we depend entirely on such secondary sources of water. In the process, it is forgotten that rain is the ultimate source that feeds all these secondary sources and remain ignorant of its value. Water harvesting means to understand the value of rain, and to make optimum use of the rainwater at the place where it falls. Rainwater harvesting in urban areas can have manifold reasons. Some of the reasons rainwater harvesting can be adopted in cities are to provide supplemental water for the city's requirements, to increase soil moisture levels for urban greenery, to increase the ground water table through artificial recharge, to mitigate urban flooding and to improve the quality of groundwater. In urban areas of the developed world, at a household level, harvested rainwater can be used for flushing toilets and washing laundry. Indeed in hard water areas it is superior to mains water for this. It can also be used for showering or bathing. It may require treatment prior to use for drinking. In New Zealand, many houses away from the larger towns and cities routinely rely on rainwater collected from roofs as the only source of water for all household activities. This is almost inevitably the case for many holiday homes.

Demand for water is growing in most cities as every urban citizen requires almost double the amount of water that a rural citizen requires. Moreover, India is rapidly urbanizing. Urban population in India has grown almost five times in five decades .Not long ago, most of our cities were self sufficient in meeting their water needs from the extensive urban water bodies to supply water to citizens. Today these water bodies have completely disappeared. Municipalities have been stretched to their limits to find water for the growing urban populations. Groundwater is being extracted by the government as well as the private parties. In the name of cleaning the river Yamuna, the Delhi government has recently cleared a Rs 1,950-crore project to lay sewers to intercept drains carrying sewage from colonies not connected to the city sewage system. But, will it clean the river at all? Or is it more money down the drain? Let us read our awareness in this matter.

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