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Social Research


The social research of the Navjivan Foundation refers to research conducted by social scientists. Social research methods may be divided into two broad categories: Quantitative designs attempt to reduce social phenomena to quantifiable data which can then be statistically analyzed, focusing on the links and attributes across several cases. Qualitative designs emphasize personal experiences, interpretation, and self-knowledge over quantification, are concerned with understanding the meaning of social phenomena, and focus on links and attributes across relatively few cases. Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyze a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agents' social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents. The methods rooted in classical sociology and statistics have formed the basis for research in further social sciences and humanities subjects, such as political science, media studies, and market research. Research can be defined as the search for knowledge or any systematic investigation to establish facts.

The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines.

Historical research is embodied in the scientific method. The term research is also used to describe an entire collection of information about a particular subject. On scientific research Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied: Formation of the topic ,Hypothesis ,Conceptual definitions ,Operational definition ,Gathering of data ,Analysis of data ,Test, revising of hypothesis ,Conclusion, iteration if necessary .A common misunderstanding is that by this method a hypothesis can be proven or tested. Generally a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected. However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true (or better, predictive), but this is not the same as it having been proven.

A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. On historical The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. There are various history guidelines commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. This includes higher criticism and textual criticism. Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are usually part of most formal historical research: Identification of origin date ,Evidence of localization ,Recognition of authorship ,Analysis of data ,Identification of integrity ,Attribution of credibility ,Social scientists are divided into camps of support for particular research techniques. These disputes relate to the historical core of social theory (positivism and ant positivism; structure and agency). While very different in many aspects, both qualitative and quantitative approaches involve a systematic interaction between theory and data. The choice of method often depends largely on what the researcher intends to investigate. For example, a researcher concerned with drawing a statistical generalization across an entire population may administer a survey questionnaire to a representative sample population.

By contrast, a researcher who seeks full contextual understanding of individuals' social actions may choose ethnographic participant observation or open-ended interviews. Studies will commonly combine, or 'triangulate', quantitative and qualitative methods as part of a 'multi-strategy' design. For instance, a quantitative study may be performed to gain statistical patterns or a target sample, and then combined with a qualitative interview to determine the play of agency. Survey research a research method involving the use of questionnaires and/or statistical surveys to gather data about people and their thoughts and behaviors.

In India the field of social research differs greatly from that of the other countries in the west because India, unlike any other country, presents several of social problems, which are peculiar to her social situations and social relationship. India has her peculiar traditions and customs and her various social problems will have to be viewed in their own perspective. We can certainly benefit ourselves from the experiences and techniques derived from the researches in the other countries. But, at the some time, a new technique will have to be developed and new experiences gained. So far social researches in India have been carried out as a pastime activity and truly speaking, due seriousness has never been attached and it would be no exaggeration to say that social researches in India were mostly motivated by certain specific considerations. Researches by individuals mainly concentrated on problems that were on the face of it very interesting and that could be easily crashed at the counter of the Government agencies or the non Government sponsored institutions.

They also reflected an imitation of the west and were hardly oriented in a genuine Indian perspective. Researches carried out by private institutions or social institutions mainly concerned themselves with sumptuous grants from a variety of sources and the results were of little practical value of the Indian society as a whole. Therefore it seems highly imperative that the broad fields of social research in our own country be cleared laid down , so that amateur or mature social scientists may devoted their precious time and genuine interest in investigating relevant facts, which in their ultimate analysis may have practical significances. In the first instance the two fields the rural and the urban should be treated separately for any social research work.

Secondly researchers should be carried out in the field of new social organization, which are gradually emerging out as a result of the movement of the Indian population from one corner to the other. These researches will reveal many interesting problems of population, occupational, stratum, leisure time activities, educational resources and requirements and various other social organizations at the different levels of society.

Thirdly there is an important socio psychological field in which problems relating to different religions, casts, traditions and customs, socio prejudices, stereotypes, legends, folkways, folklores, attitude measurement etc. may be investigated with profit.

Fourthly various cultural problems need special emphasis. Some cross cultural studies have no doubt been made in this field. But one great draw back of such studies has been that their technique was quite unsuited to Indian conditions. Indian culture has its own peculiarities. Besides it synthesizes as many other cultures and therefore this field mainly present a difficult problem and hence a careful handling. The importance of various cultural changes has also not to be overlooked in this context.

Fifthly there are socio economic problems that have come up as a result of the growing race of industrialization and urbanization. In this field the various technological developments will have to be given due weight, otherwise very erroneous results may come out.

Sixthly the tribal areas, e.g.,Nagas, Todas etc. present a vast field for sociological studies. Likewise many such social fields may be explored out and social research work in India may be planned well in advance. In the end it may be pointed out that all such researches should be well coordinated and targrated.

Navjivan Foundation has more experience staffs in the research field and more than 10 years experience in the different sectors like AFC, OASCS, Agree watch Indicus, IMRB, ORG, TNS, DRS, IMRS,MODS Acinailon etc. with Quantitative techniques and research methodologies, Designing & Organizing Research Studies, Evaluation & Impact Assessment, Need Assessment & Baseline Studies ,Education and Health, Women Empowerment, Nutrition, Displacement and Development, Field Management, Rehabilitation & Resettlement, Poverty Alleviations, Environment, PRA Techniques, Rural Development, Education, PDS, field Of Finance & cooperation, Rural Development, Tribal Development, Agriculture, Expertise in the area of Research and Evaluation particularly related to Migration, child Rights, Training, Education & Political Research, expert in the area of Rural and Urban development with Computer Education, Gender Studies, Labour, Planning and Management, Expert in the area of training and capacity building, Monitoring and Evaluation, IEC and Public Relation and Communication, Trafficking, Conducting Qualitative Research Technique, Quantitative Techniques and Field Management & Rural Development etc. So in the place of organizing camp the organization collect research data through its experience staffs in various locality.


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